My understanding of Coq is that Prop : Type_1, Set : Type_1, and then Type_1 : Type_2, Type_2 : Type_3, etc.

So, at the bottom level, the world splits into two universes: Prop (impredicative) and Set (predicative, like all the other Type_i universes). My question is: why not just have Prop : Type_0 : Type_1 : Type_2 : ..., with Prop being impredicative as it is today, and all the other levels would be predicative, also as is the case today? Wouldn't that be simpler? Would cumulatively still work?

  • $\begingroup$ I'm not sure but I believe Set is not actually predicative $\endgroup$
    – Couchy
    Commented Jun 27, 2022 at 5:19
  • $\begingroup$ @Couchy why do you say that? $\endgroup$ Commented Jun 28, 2022 at 1:28
  • $\begingroup$ It seems this is no longer the case, as Pierre-Marie Pédrot answered $\endgroup$
    – Couchy
    Commented Jun 28, 2022 at 2:03

1 Answer 1


As it often happens with Coq, the answer is historical reasons.

In the original version dating back from 1984, Coq was based on the Calculus of Constructions, a barebone dependent type theory. In particular, it did not feature inductive types. Instead, following the PTS tradition, it had impredicative universes.

The introduction of inductive types did not change this state of affair, and for a long time Coq had two impredicative universes, Prop and Set. The difference between both lied in the fact that the former was erased by extraction, but not the latter. This phase separation had been around for a long time already.

When dealing with several impredicative universes, one has to be extremely careful because proofs of False lurk around the corner. In particular, Prop : Set when both are impredicative is enough be a variant of Girard's system U⁻ and thus inconsistent. The Coq developers of yore were well aware of this issue and relied on an alternative hierarchy, so that Prop : Type and Set : Type.

Now, at some point it was decided to make Set predicative by default, for other somewhat related reasons. Indeed, impredicative proof-relevant universes are very much inconsistent with many slightly classical principles like excluded middle in Type or some forms of choice. In particular and ironically, with an impredicative Set, Coq has no set-theoretical model (as in Polymorphism is not set-theoretic). Nowadays, Set is thus predicative except if the user opts in impredicativity with a specific flag.

Impredicative set is essentially not used as of today, and really not tested so it has fallen to bitrot. It is extremely likely that it is not usable anymore, and there is an evergreen discussion about its removal. Yet, since the flag still exists Coq needs to at least pretend to avoid inconsistencies when the user sets it, and therefore one cannot have Prop : Set.

If the flag ever gets removed, maybe we can consider adding this rule, but then there might be weird backwards incompatibilities. Therefore, it is not even clear we will ever perform this change even in a situation where it is perfectly sound.


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