# Dependent pattern matching

upd. What I would like to do is to put a = RedNode' .. into current context (when using refine). I found this technique here https://stackoverflow.com/questions/27316254/coq-keeping-information-in-a-match-statement .

This code works:

Inductive color : Set := Red | Black.

Inductive rbtree : color -> nat -> Set :=
| Leaf : rbtree Black 0
| RedNode : forall n, rbtree Black n -> nat -> rbtree Black n -> rbtree Red n
| BlackNode : forall c1 c2 n, rbtree c1 n -> nat -> rbtree c2 n -> rbtree Black (S n).

Inductive rtree : nat -> Set :=
| RedNode' : forall c1 c2 n, rbtree c1 n -> nat -> rbtree c2 n -> rtree n.

Definition balance1 n (a : rtree n) (data : nat) c2 (t : rbtree c2 n)
: { c : color & rbtree c (S n) }.
refine(
match a with
| RedNode' _ c0 _ t1 y t2 => fun Heqa => _
end (eq_refl a)).


My question is in next (slightly modified definition) of balance1:

Definition balance1 n (a : rtree n) (data : nat) c2 (t : rbtree c2 n)
: { c : color & rbtree c (S n) }.
refine(
match a as ax in rtreen nx return a = ax -> _ with
| RedNode' _ c0 _ t1 y t2 => fun Heqa => _
end (eq_refl a)).


And now coq does not see that a and ax the same because it is not able to see that n and nx are the same.

What is going on and how to express equality between n and nx (so, coq will see I can have a = ax)?

(an example is taken from CPDT).

• What I would like to do is to put RedNode' into current context (which I see in proof mode when using refine). I found this here stackoverflow.com/questions/27316254/… Jun 27, 2022 at 8:38

As mentioned by Pierre Castèran, the first definition works because Coq infers a (useless) return type ax = ax -> _. If you really want to maintain an equality like a = ax you need to work a bit more to have (a modification of) a and ax at the same type. The first possibility is to make explicit the equality between the natural number indices and rewrite along it in the return clause:

(* First possibility: take an equation between the indices as argument
and transport along that equation *)
Definition balance1 n (a : rtree n) (data : nat) c2 (t : rbtree c2 n)
: { c : color & rbtree c (S n) }.
refine(
match a as ax in rtree nx return
forall (en : n = nx) (ea : eq_rect n rtree a nx en = ax), _
with
| RedNode' _ c0 _ t1 y t2 => fun Heqn Heqa => _
end eq_refl eq_refl).
Abort.


The second possibility, which is a variant on the first used a lot by the Equations library, packs together a natural number with an rtree in a dependent sum, so that the resulting pair has no dependence and equality can be used directly on the pairs:

(* Variant: pack the index n together with the element a : rtree n
and take an equation between the packed arguments *)

(* Definition and notation for dependent sum *)
Set Primitive Projections.
Record sigma A (B : A -> Type) := mkSig { pr1 : A; pr2 : B pr1 }.
Unset Primitive Projections.
Arguments sigma {A} B.
Arguments mkSig {A} B pr1 pr2.
Notation "'Σ' x .. y , P" := (sigma (fun x => .. (sigma (fun y => P)) ..))
(at level 200, x binder, y binder, right associativity,
format "'[  ' '[  ' Σ  x  ..  y ']' ,  '/' P ']'") : type_scope.

Notation "( x , .. , y , z )" :=
(@mkSig _ _ x .. (@mkSig _ _ y z) ..)
(right associativity, at level 0,
format "( x ,  .. ,  y ,  z )").
Notation " x .1 " := (pr1 x) (at level 3, format "x .1").
Notation " x .2 " := (pr2 x) (at level 3, format "x .2").

Definition balance2 n (a : rtree n) (data : nat) c2 (t : rbtree c2 n)
: { c : color & rbtree c (S n) }.
refine(
match a as ax in rtree nx return
(n, a) = (nx, ax) -> _
with
| RedNode' _ c0 _ t1 y t2 => fun Heqa => _
end eq_refl).
Abort.


In both cases, actually using these equalities afterwards will be somewhat painful: you might be able to use them thanks to decidable equality on natural numbers and its consequences (in particular UIP_nat in Coq.Arith.Peano_dec if you use the stdlib).

But more globally, you should consider whether maintining such an equality will be really useful for proving your goal: a does not appear in the conclusion, nor in any other premise so you should not need to know anything about it beyond its content once pattern-matched.

• Both solutions are just great. Thank you! Jun 27, 2022 at 20:04